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Cannabinoids are often excluded from postmortem toxicology screens due to their ubiquitous nature, interpretative difficulties and unanswered questions regarding their postmortem redistribution. In this study, we review 30 postmortem cases where a drug screen gave a positive cannabinoids result and a confirmation identified Δ?-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-Δ?-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), and/or 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ?-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in peripheral (BL-P) or cardiac/central blood (BL-C) and/or urine (UR).

Doses of nabilone ranged from 1 to 4 mg/day; treatment duration was five weeks. Data from a pilot clinical trial with the Syqe Inhaler? has shown that an inhaled dose of as little as 3 mg THC (~1.5 mg THC absorbed, delivered from an amount as low as 15 mg of dried cannabis plant material at a potency of 20% THC) was associated with analgesic efficacy with minimal adverse effectsReference 58. THC was detected in the plasma within 1 min following inhalation and reached a maximum within 3 min at a mean THC concentration of 38 ng/ml. An open-label, pilot study of add-on oral THC (25 mg/ml in olive oil) for the treatment of symptoms associated with PTSD suggested dosing begin by placing 2.5 mg THC b.i.d. beneath the tongue (i.e. 0.1 mL of the oil solution) 1 h after waking up and 2 h before going to bedReference 571.

Once heart disease starts to develop, it’s difficult or impossible to reverse. While many of the studies on CBD and heart disease are small, the results are extremely promising.

Furthermore, a number of in vitro studies have provided strong evidence that smoke from burning cannabis is carcinogenic (reviewed inReference 140). The cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of cannabis smoke condensates were compared to their tobacco counterparts and in contrast to tobacco smoke condensates, those derived from cannabis smoke appeared to be more cytotoxic and mutagenic, while the opposite was true with respect to cytogenetic damageReference 82. In addition, for either cannabis or tobacco smoke, the particulate phase was substantially more cytotoxic than the gas phase. A follow-up global toxicogenomic analysis comparing tobacco and cannabis smoke condensates in vitro reported that tobacco smoke condensate exposure was associated with expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage responseReference 1405. Taken together, these studies suggest that cannabis smoke cannot be deemed "safer" than tobacco smoke.

Evidence from epidemiological studies also suggests a dose-dependent association between cannabis use and suicidality, especially in men. Cannabis use is also associated with earlier onset of schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals and exacerbation of existing schizophrenic symptoms and worse clinical outcomes. Furthermore, early-onset best CBD gummies use and use of high-potency, THC-predominant cannabis, has been associated with an increased risk of some brain structural changes and cognitive impairment. However, a recent systematic review suggests that evidence examining the effects of cannabis on cardiovascular health is inconsistent and insufficient. However, evidence from human observational studies is complex and suggests that while confounding factors may account for associations between heavy cannabis use during pregnancy and adverse neonatal or perinatal effects, heavy cannabis use during pregnancy is associated with reduced neonatal birth weight.

MS patients reported using cannabis to manage symptoms such as spasticity and chronic pain as well as anxiety and/or depressionReference 225Reference 226. Reputed dosages of smoked cannabis by these patients varied from a few puffs to 1 g or more at a timeReference 225. The authors attributed the null findings to the heterogeneity of study characteristics, and the limitation in which HRQoL were secondary and not primary outcomes in most studies.

Changing a route of administration changes people’s habits, and their whole perception of the drug. The idea that vaping mitigates the risk of smoking could make people more likely to intoxicate themselves, more often, et cetera. When that sort of usage becomes a problem socially, professionally—or in any of the other ways that relationships to mind-altering substances can become problematic—then vaping would indeed be unsafe. UC San Diego Health’s renowned electrophysiology program performs one of the largest volumes of device implantations, ablations and laser lead extractions in the nation. More information about cardiac arrhythmia treatment at UC San Diego Sulpizio Cardiovascular Center.

Either way, AF can lead to heart failure and strokes, dramatically impacting the lives of those with this condition. One thing he says is clear, though, is that smoking — of any kind — is harmful to heart health.

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